What are the courageous next steps? Biden can lay down the criteria for bringing Hamas into the peace process (as was done with the PLO). He can cease providing the diplomatic umbrella that protects Israel’s most blatant actions from the requirements of international law. He can use the considerable leverage of the U.S. to achieve concrete changes in the lives of people by demanding an end to the siege of Gaza, administrative detentions, midnight arrests of children, trials for children in military courts, house demolitions, and the use of torture and collective punishments against the Palestinian population. All these steps can be achieved without jeopardizing Israel’s security or prejudicing the ultimate outcome of any peace negotiations between the parties.